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posted by janrinok on Monday January 27 2020, @05:46PM   Printer-friendly

Arthur T Knackerbracket has found the following story:

Political polarization among Americans has grown rapidly in the last 40 years—more than in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia or Germany—a phenomenon possibly due to increased racial division, the rise of partisan cable news and changes in the composition of the Democratic and Republican parties.

That's according to new research co-authored by Jesse Shapiro, a professor of political economy at Brown University. The study, conducted alongside Stanford University economists Levi Boxell and Matthew Gentzkow, was released on Monday, Jan. 20, as a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper.

In the study, Shapiro and colleagues present the first ever multi-nation evidence on long-term trends in "affective polarization"—a phenomenon in which citizens feel more negatively toward other political parties than toward their own. They found that in the U.S., affective polarization has increased more dramatically since the late 1970s than in the eight other countries they examined—the U.K., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Switzerland, Norway and Sweden.

"A lot of analysis on polarization is focused on the U.S., so we thought it could be interesting to put the U.S. in context and see whether it is part of a global trend or whether it looks more exceptional," Shapiro said. "We found that the trend in the U.S. is indeed exceptional."

Using data from four decades of public opinion surveys conducted in the nine countries, the researchers used a so-called "feeling thermometer" to rate attitudes on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 reflected no negative feelings toward other parties. They found that in 1978, the average American rated the members of their own political party 27 points higher than members of the other major party. By 2016, Americans were rating their own party 45.9 points higher than the other party, on average. In other words, negative feelings toward members of the other party compared to one's own party increased by an average of 4.8 points per decade.

The researchers found that polarization had also risen in Canada, New Zealand and Switzerland in the last 40 years, but to a lesser extent. In the U.K., Australia, Germany, Norway and Sweden, polarization decreased.

More information: Levi Boxell et al, Cross-Country Trends in Affective Polarization, (2020). DOI: 10.3386/w26669


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  • (Score: 2) by c0lo on Tuesday January 28 2020, @02:40AM (18 children)

    by c0lo (156) Subscriber Badge on Tuesday January 28 2020, @02:40AM (#949772) Journal

    Sometimes it's not possible to walk away from a fight.

    So? Have it with minimal effort and, win or lose it, get ahead with your life together with the people that surround you.
    Just make sure the one you fight is the actual enemy.

    So bowing down is the absolutely stupidest thing you can do.
    ...
    In the case of Trump, he should have been impeached long ago.

    And your permanent in-fight with your neighbor, who you have a lot more in common than in difference, is gonna solve Trump's impeachment... exactly how?
    How are you contributing to a solution to your problem?

    Hang on, given the stubbornness you continue to accuse me that I'm bowing to the (Trump?**) bully, I wonder if you can see what the problem plaguing both you and your neighbor-in-the-other-tribe actually is?

    You can't let a bully get away with it or you're complicit in every act of bullying they go on to do thereafter. That's reality - you might have been able to stop it and you didn't.

    Yeah. One of the unmistakable flavors of the savior complex - you may the one that are destined to save the world, if you even dare to sleep until the world is not saved then you are a traitor of some kind. Nevermind the responsibility of the others for their own "salvation".

    "Road to hell and the good intentions", maybe you may want think a bit about.

    ---
    ** I'm not even American

    --
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  • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:18AM (12 children)

    by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:18AM (#949807) Journal

    I am not in any sort of permanent infighting with any neighbour - that's your strawman argument. I am doing my best to ignore the neighbourhood alcoholic who keeps trying to hit on me. Not the same thing at all.

    And your arguments ignore behavioural science and real-world experience. MAD works. It actually preserves the peace, but only if the other side knows you're ready to go to the mat if necessary. Fight if necessary, but not necessarily fight.

    Personally, I don't give a shit if Trump gets re-elected or not. The clock is ticking on the US empire, same as all past empires. Who cares the identity of the next Nero fiddling while Rome burns?

    And like more than 95% of the world's population, I'm not an American, so really, I'm sitting on the sidelines with popcorn at the ready. Same as Brexit. The Anglo-American empire is dying. I don't believe it can be saved, and I'm not sure it should be, since we're facing the biggest crisis we've ever faced, and Americans still don't believe in global warming and environmental degradation in sufficient quantities, and sufficient urgency, to do anything.

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    • (Score: 2) by c0lo on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:42AM (11 children)

      by c0lo (156) Subscriber Badge on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:42AM (#949823) Journal

      I am not in any sort of permanent infighting with any neighbour

      That's not what TFA says.

      I am doing my best to ignore the neighbourhood alcoholic who keeps trying to hit on me.

      Oh, come on, Barbara. You know very well I'm not talking about your "neighbourhood alcoholic". How about you start considering the S/N dwellers as neighbours and look who you quarrel with most of the times.

      And your arguments ignore behavioural science and real-world experience. MAD works.

      1. Can you prove that's the only solution to US internal problems?
      2. Can you prove the equivalency between MAD and the corrupt and resource-draining-never-ending-dirty-electoral-campaign that is now the US political life?

      Personally, I don't give a shit if Trump gets re-elected or not.

      But you were (still are?) quick to push others to "resist the bully or else the world ends and it will be your fault", do I got that message it right?

      You not only have the legal right to self-defence, you also have the moral obligation, because if you don't stand up to a bully, they will also go on and bully others.

      If I got it, is this ethical?

      --
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      • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:22PM (10 children)

        by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:22PM (#950084) Journal

        I am NOT in a permanent fight with my neighbours. I am not an American, so don't you DARE misconstrue American infighting (either purposefully or not) with my situation. That's what you've been doing, and it's disingenuous at the very least. What TFA says has no application whatsoever to my situation. It talks specifically about polarization among US citizens only.

        I've made my views clear many times. Trump is the crook that Americans got because in a democracy you ALWAYS get the government you deserve (not that the US is a democracy any more, but that is due to voters wilfully ignoring what's been going on for decades and instead looking for people who will feed their hyper-partisan interests - which again just goes to show that in a democracy you get the government you deserve; too weak-willed and ill-informed to ensure it stays a democracy? Don't blame the media, or bigcorp - look in the mirror).

        And yes, standing up to bullies is part of ensuring that democracy continues to be a democracy. But Americans have become too selfish, to short-sighted, to stand up to bullies, even when the opportunity is handed to them on a silver platter, as with the Mueller report. Meuller chickened out. He could have, and should have, laid charges. "Policy" is not an excuse to not do what is right, same as "I vas chust followink orders".

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        • (Score: 2) by c0lo on Tuesday January 28 2020, @04:20PM (9 children)

          by c0lo (156) Subscriber Badge on Tuesday January 28 2020, @04:20PM (#950115) Journal

          I am not an American, so don't you DARE misconstrue American infighting (either purposefully or not) with my situation.

          Unreserved apologies for that.

          And yes, standing up to bullies is part of ensuring that democracy continues to be a democracy. But Americans have become too selfish, to short-sighted, to stand up to bullies...

          However, by your own admission, you have - legally speaking - no skin in the American's (correction: USians) political game.
          Are you sure you can act as a "moral compass" for them? If they don't actually want to live in a democracy, if they traded democracy in exchange for their "temporary embarrassed billionaire"... who am I or you to say they must do otherwise.

          (Note that I said I see their infight as irrational - a matter of personal opinion - not that they are not entitled to do it. Whatever float their boats.
          The mainland Chinese seem to be happier with their govt, to the point of blaming Hong Kong for making such a fuss.
          The Vietnamese seem to be happy enough with their still communist regime - many visit Australia and choose to go back.
          Heck, the majority of Cubans made their choice too - as a fun fact, their life expectancy [worldlifeexpectancy.com] make them live under their regime one year longer than USians [worldlifeexpectancy.com])

          He could have, and should have, laid charges.

          You know the "Fiat justitia, pereat mundus"? In an approximate (tongue in cheeck) translation: "Rulz are rulz and if all break them, the entire civilization collapses anyway. Zo, let the mundus to pereat sooner if so it wishes, we are gonna uphold the rulz, 'cause that's what make us different from the barbarians". Do you really really want to fault him for that?
          ...

          And still propose that the rulez which you tabled are better and it is those that must be followed?
          --
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoFiw2jMy-0 https://soylentnews.org/~MichaelDavidCrawford
          • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @06:04PM (8 children)

            by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @06:04PM (#950144) Journal
            At this point it's apparent that moral and ethical compasses are irrelevant to many Americans - they openly admit it. Can't argue ethics with people who have none and are proud of it. Can't expect them to base their actions on right vs wrong when the only right they acknowledge is their right to win at all costs. So the only tactic that can be used is the same one as dealing with bullies - because they will never fight fair.

            People asked how it was possible for the nation of Germany to descend into Naziism. But Germans voted for Hitler, same as all hey voted for Trump. Both were opportunistic racists, and racism is a lever like none other. -

            At least this time it will most likely not engulf the whole world. That's one benefit of the US's policy of increased self-isolation. But it's gonna be messy for everyone no matter where you live on the planet.

            --
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            • (Score: 2) by Azuma Hazuki on Friday January 31 2020, @11:51PM (7 children)

              by Azuma Hazuki (5086) on Friday January 31 2020, @11:51PM (#952063) Journal

              I just hope to fuck I can get out of this place before it all comes crashing down. Being poor and female and gay (and closeted, in meatspace...) does not make this an easy proposition, especially not given all the shit I'm dealing with.

              --
              I am "that girl" your mother warned you about...
              • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:29AM (6 children)

                by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:29AM (#952083) Journal

                Now that Trump will be acquitted and probably win election you're a prime candidate for refugee status in Canada. Persecution for being lgbt is often invoked by refugees.

                With the way the refugee process is already backed up something like 5 years with appeals due to the huge influx of people coming illegally into Canada by just walking across the border at Roxton Pond, it's well known how easy peasey it is.

                Walk across the border.
                Nice cops arrest you, bring you and your baggage to a trailer park office
                Say you're a refugee.
                Do the paperwork.
                Identity check to make sure there's no international arrest warrants
                Get paperwork showing you're eligible for free health care, public assistance
                Brought by bus to temp shelter if you don't have anyone to go to.

                In by 9, out by 5

                https://montreal.ctvnews.ca/mobile/refugee-claimants-forced-to-turn-to-welfare-as-work-permits-stalled-in-federal-bureaucracy-1.4769385 [ctvnews.ca]

                Bring documentation of education and work experience and you'll probably be working within a month - we have a severe worker shortage,

                Or just apply for a work visa. Like I said, huge worker shortage, government is actively holding job fairs in other countries.

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                • (Score: 2) by Azuma Hazuki on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:37AM (5 children)

                  by Azuma Hazuki (5086) on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:37AM (#952088) Journal

                  Think I should get PTCB certified first? Would having the shiny expensive piece of paper that tells the HR grindbots I know what I know make a work visa easier?

                  --
                  I am "that girl" your mother warned you about...
                  • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:58AM (4 children)

                    by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Saturday February 01 2020, @12:58AM (#952095) Journal

                    You can do it on the job here - or maybe not even bother. I know my sister worked for years as a lab tech - but her husband owned the pharmacy. Either way, education is WAY cheaper here. I think someone with refugee status pays the same as a local - sometihing like 5-10% of what an education costs in the USA for a degree.

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                    • (Score: 2) by Azuma Hazuki on Saturday February 01 2020, @02:25AM (3 children)

                      by Azuma Hazuki (5086) on Saturday February 01 2020, @02:25AM (#952127) Journal

                      Oh, it's a corporate cert, not an accredited education program. It's like CompTIA A+ for people who put pills in bottles instead of RAM in DIMM slots.

                      --
                      I am "that girl" your mother warned you about...
                      • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Saturday February 01 2020, @02:35AM (2 children)

                        by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Saturday February 01 2020, @02:35AM (#952131) Journal
                        Okay. Then you won't need it. I've asked my sister what the route is for such things here - explained that with Trump now likely to be re-elected there's going to be a lot more illegal refugees coming to Canada. The labour shortage up here is crazy - we even have government programs encouraging foreign restaurant workers to immigrate because restaurants can't find the staff. Complete with free second language courses if needed.
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                        • (Score: 2) by Azuma Hazuki on Saturday February 01 2020, @03:14AM (1 child)

                          by Azuma Hazuki (5086) on Saturday February 01 2020, @03:14AM (#952153) Journal

                          Helluva world we live in, huh? :/ I'll have a year of outpatient experience this June; with that and the PTCB cert I'll be attractive enough to come in on a work visa, no?

                          --
                          I am "that girl" your mother warned you about...
                          • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Saturday February 01 2020, @04:06AM

                            by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Saturday February 01 2020, @04:06AM (#952174) Journal
                            You probably already are. Like I said, we've got shortages - it's on the news pretty much every night as employers complain to the government to do something more
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  • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:07PM (4 children)

    by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @03:07PM (#950077) Journal
    What "permanent fight with my neighbour?" Never happened, so stop with the bullshit strawman arguments.
    --
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    • (Score: 2) by c0lo on Tuesday January 28 2020, @04:23PM (3 children)

      by c0lo (156) Subscriber Badge on Tuesday January 28 2020, @04:23PM (#950116) Journal

      Ok, ok. My fault for not noticing you trace moral rules for the people living inside from the outside the system.

      --
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      • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @06:18PM (2 children)

        by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @06:18PM (#950151) Journal

        Why not? There's a reason why the Universal Declaration of Human Rights uses the term "universal." I don't see any reason to suspend judgment of what is moral or ethical just because of a border. Racism, homophobia, transmisogeny, sexual violence, slavery, child exploitation, rape, men telling women what we can and can't do with our bodies without giving us equal domain over theirs, animal cruelty, re-education camps for religious minorities, environmental destruction, FGM, attempts to change someone's sexual or gender orientation, torture, etc don't become okay just because some country says that it's part of their local customs.

        Neither human, animal, or environmental rights stop at borders. The reality is that reality ignores borders anyway - just ask the coronavirus patients. What goes around comes around whether we like it or not.

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        • (Score: 2) by c0lo on Tuesday January 28 2020, @10:02PM (1 child)

          by c0lo (156) Subscriber Badge on Tuesday January 28 2020, @10:02PM (#950264) Journal

          There's a reason why the Universal Declaration of Human Rights uses the term "universal."

          There's also a reason for which the document is not called "Universal Declaration of Human Obligations".
          The declaration give you the right to speak you mind, yes. But when they are giving away their rights by themselves, I believe the same declaration give them the right to do so within their borders.

          --
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aoFiw2jMy-0 https://soylentnews.org/~MichaelDavidCrawford
          • (Score: 2) by barbara hudson on Tuesday January 28 2020, @10:22PM

            by barbara hudson (6443) <barbara.Jane.hudson@icloud.com> on Tuesday January 28 2020, @10:22PM (#950278) Journal
            Actually, signatories are required to protect those rights as one of their obligations. Treaties give rise to both rights and obligations.
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