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posted by mrpg on Friday November 18, @10:44PM   Printer-friendly

[...] A piece of legislation lined up for a vote in Congress, called the Pasteur Act (named both for the 19th-century microbiologist and to stand for Pioneering Antimicrobial Subscriptions to End Upsurging Resistance), could repopulate that empty landscape by guaranteeing government funds to help a small number of new antibiotics make it to market. The proposal has bipartisan support in both the House and Senate, is backed by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), was implicitly endorsed in the last White House budget, and resembles programs already implemented in other countries.

[...] "If this doesn't pass, or something like it doesn't get implemented, then I don't know what Plan B is," says Joe Larsen, a vice president at Locus Biosciences Inc. who launched an Obama–era program of antibiotic investment while serving in the US government's Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority. "We need to re-envision the way we support antimicrobials in the US."

That patients might run out of effective antibiotics is a jarring thought. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that antibiotic-resistant infections already kill more than 48,000 Americans each year and sicken 2.8 million. A January study in The Lancet estimated the annual global death toll at 1.27 million. Antibiotic resistance got worse during the pandemic as health care workers tried to protect Covid patients from bacterial infections, not just in individual outbreaks in hospitals but across the US.

[...] Lacking enough income to balance their expenditures, the big companies left the field to small biotechs. These new players believe in the mission, but typically don't have income from other product lines to buoy them while they wait for sales. Since 2010, the makers of five out of 15 new antibiotics approved by the FDA have folded or sold themselves at auction because they could not outlast the lag between approval and earnings. A sixth company backed off an antibiotic in Phase 3 trials in May and laid off three-fourths of its staff. A seventh reorganized itself just last month.

Original Submission

posted by mrpg on Friday November 18, @08:00PM   Printer-friendly
from the oops dept.

Cable company's accidental email to rival discusses plan to block competition

On October 17, Jonathan Chambers received an email that wasn't meant for him.

Chambers is one of the top executives at Conexon, a broadband company that has built and operates dozens of fiber networks in rural parts of America. Conexon recently won one of the Louisiana state government's GUMBO grants to deploy fiber-to-the-home service in East Carroll Parish, where the poverty rate of 37.6 percent is over three times the national average.

"This isn't our biggest project anywhere. But in many ways it's our most important," Chambers told Ars in a phone interview. Conexon primarily works with electric cooperatives, favoring a business model in which the local community owns the fiber network and Conexon operates it under a lease agreement.

But the East Carroll Parish grant—$4 million to serve over 2,500 households in an area that has been called one of the least connected in the state—is in limbo because of an eleventh-hour challenge from Cable One, a cable provider that offers services under its SparkLight brand name. Cable One plans to make similar challenges in other states; in fact, blocking government grants to other ISPs is one of Cable One's top priorities, according to the accidental email received by Chambers.

"Challenging publicly funded overbuilds is becoming one of the most important tasks we do as a company," Cable One Assistant General Counsel Patrick Caron wrote in the email.

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posted by janrinok on Friday November 18, @05:14PM   Printer-friendly

The Earth's climate has undergone some big changes, from global volcanism to planet-cooling ice ages and dramatic shifts in solar radiation. And yet life, for the last 3.7 billion years, has kept on beating.

Now, a study by MIT researchers in Science Advances confirms that the planet harbors a "stabilizing feedback" mechanism that acts over hundreds of thousands of years to pull the climate back from the brink, keeping global temperatures within a steady, habitable range.

Just how does it accomplish this? A likely mechanism is "silicate weathering"—a geological process by which the slow and steady weathering of silicate rocks involves chemical reactions that ultimately draw carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and into ocean sediments, trapping the gas in rocks.

Scientists have long suspected that silicate weathering plays a major role in regulating the Earth's carbon cycle. The mechanism of silicate weathering could provide a geologically constant force in keeping carbon dioxide—and global temperatures—in check. But there's never been direct evidence for the continual operation of such a feedback, until now.

The new findings are based on a study of paleoclimate data that record changes in average global temperatures over the last 66 million years. The MIT team applied a mathematical analysis to see whether the data revealed any patterns characteristic of stabilizing phenomena that reined in global temperatures on a geologic timescale.

They found that indeed there appears to be a consistent pattern in which the Earth's temperature swings are dampened over timescales of hundreds of thousands of years. The duration of this effect is similar to the timescales over which silicate weathering is predicted to act.

The results are the first to use actual data to confirm the existence of a stabilizing feedback, the mechanism of which is likely silicate weathering. This stabilizing feedback would explain how the Earth has remained habitable through dramatic climate events in the geologic past.

"On the one hand, it's good because we know that today's global warming will eventually be canceled out through this stabilizing feedback," says Constantin Arnscheidt, a graduate student in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS). "But on the other hand, it will take hundreds of thousands of years to happen, so not fast enough to solve our present-day issues."

More information: Constantin Arnscheidt, Presence or absence of stabilizing Earth system feedbacks on different timescales, Science Advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.adc9241

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posted by janrinok on Friday November 18, @02:28PM   Printer-friendly

Cascade Lake and Skylake prove even more expensive than expected:

VLSI Technology, a patent holding company affiliated with Softbank's Fortress Investment Group, has been awarded $948.8 million in a patent infringement claim against Intel Corporation.

On Tuesday, a federal jury in the Western District of Texas, a popular venue for patent claims, found that Intel's Cascade Lake and Skylake processors violated a VLSI data processing patent.

Intel in a statement emailed to The Register said it intends to appeal the decision.

"This case is just one example of many that shows the US patent system is in urgent need of reform," a company spokesperson said. "VLSI is a 'patent troll' created by Fortress, a hedge fund that is bankrolled by large investment groups for the sole purpose of filing lawsuits to extract billions from American innovators like Intel."

"This is the third time that Intel has been forced to defend itself against meritless patent infringement claims made by VLSI. Intel strongly disagrees with the jury's verdict and the excessive damages awarded. We intend to appeal and are confident in the strength of our case."

An attorney representing VLSI did not immediately respond to request for comment.

[...] A 2014 academic paper, "The Direct Costs from NPE Disputes," [PDF] found that in 2011, "the estimated direct, accrued costs of NPE [non-practicing entities] patent assertions totaled $29 billion."

Large technology companies – many of which have amassed large patent portfolios, which they often justify as defensive weapons – have complained for years about patent trolls/patent assertion entities [PAE] /NPEs, which are companies that exist to file infringement claims.

Legal changes, like the US Supreme Court's Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International decision, which made software patents more difficult to obtain, have reduced patent trials – more claims are being dismissed. But Intel in its antitrust argument against Fortress has suggested that patent assertion entities are adapting to the new legal landscape.

"In the face of these challenges, PAEs have evolved," the company said. "PAEs have increasingly been partnering with investment firms to fuel their litigation."

Original Submission

posted by janrinok on Friday November 18, @11:46AM   Printer-friendly
from the cooler-than-the-Fonz dept.

This would increase the odds of finding another prehistoric human body in melting ice:

In 1991, a group of hikers found the mummified remains of Ötzi the Iceman emerging from a melting glacier. The popular interpretation—given the extraordinary preservation of the body—is that Ötzi fled from the valley after being attacked and froze to death in the gully where his mummified remains were found. His body and the tools he brought with him were quickly buried beneath the ice and remained frozen under a moving glacier for the next 5,300 years. The gully served as a kind of time capsule, protecting the remains from damage by the glacier.

But a new paper published in the journal The Holocene challenges that interpretation, suggesting that the Ötzi died elsewhere on the mountain and that normal environmental changes gradually moved his remains down into the gully. Further, for the first 1,500 years after his death, Ötzi's remains likely thawed and refroze at least once and quite possibly several times. That means it's much more likely that another ice mummy will be discovered, since no extraordinary circumstances are required to explain Ötzi's preservation.

[...] According to Lars Pilø, a glacial archaeologist with Norway's Department of Cultural Heritage, and his co-authors, even in 1992, there were some who questioned whether the mummy's remarkable preservation was due to extraordinary circumstances, most notably archaeologist Werner Meyer. The ensuing decades have seen the rise of so-called glacial archaeology, bringing its own methodology and a deeper understanding of just how complex archaeological ice sites can be. "The [original] story is so at odds with how glacial archaeological sites work," Pilø told Gizmodo. "We conclude that the find circumstances surrounding Ötzi are not a string of miracles, but can be better explained by normal processes on glacial archaeological sites."

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posted by janrinok on Friday November 18, @08:11AM   Printer-friendly
from the give-me-your-money dept.

Again a publication from Brian Krebs with a lot of insight and technical details (with screenshots as well):

A financial cybercrime group calling itself the Disneyland Team has been making liberal use of visually confusing phishing domains that spoof popular bank brands using Punycode, an Internet standard that allows web browsers to render domain names with non-Latin alphabets like Cyrillic and Ukrainian.

The Disneyland Team uses common misspellings for top bank brands in its domains. For example, one domain the gang has used since March 2022 is ushank[.]com — which was created to phish U.S. Bank customers.

But this group also usually makes use of Punycode to make their phony bank domains look more legit. The U.S. financial services firm Ameriprise uses the domain; the Disneyland Team's domain for Ameriprise customers is https[:]//www.xn--meripris-mx0doj[.]com [brackets added to defang the domain], which displays in the browser URL bar as ạmeriprisẹ[.]com.

Look carefully, and you'll notice small dots beneath the "a" and the second "e". You could be forgiven if you mistook one or both of those dots for a spec of dust on your computer screen or mobile device.

This candid view inside the Disneyland Team comes from Alex Holden, founder of the Milwaukee-based cybersecurity consulting firm Hold Security. Holden's analysts gained access to a Web-based control panel the crime group has been using to keep track of victim credentials (see screenshot above). The panel reveals the gang has been operating dozens of Punycode-based phishing domains for the better part of 2022.

To read and see the whole article visit Krebs On Security

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posted by janrinok on Friday November 18, @05:21AM   Printer-friendly

Employee expenses were approved by posting emoji in Slack channels, DMs:

Sam Bankman-Fried's failed FTX business empire misused customer funds and lacked trustworthy financial statements or any real internal controls, according to the new boss of the collapsed $32 billion crypto exchange.

John Ray III, a veteran insolvency professional who oversaw the liquidation of Enron, said in a US court filing on Thursday that FTX was the worst case of corporate failure that he had seen in his more than 40-year career.

"Never in my career have I seen such a complete failure of corporate controls and such a complete absence of trustworthy financial information as occurred here," he wrote.

The statement underlined the chaos and mismanagement at the heart of what was once a leading crypto industry player with deep ties in Washington DC. The demise of Bankman-Fried's FTX empire has plunged crypto markets into a crisis. Bankman-Fried did not immediately respond to a request for comment on the new filing.

Ray said he had found at FTX international, FTX US and Bankman-Fried's Alameda Research trading company "compromised systems integrity," "faulty regulatory oversight," and a "concentration of control in the hands of a very small group of inexperienced, unsophisticated, and potentially compromised individuals."

The scathing filing in the federal bankruptcy court in Delaware painted a picture of severe mismanagement by Bankman-Fried at FTX, a company that raised billions of dollars from top-tier venture capital investors such as Sequoia, SoftBank and Temasek.

FTX failed to keep proper books, records, or security controls for the digital assets it held for customers; used software to "conceal the misuse of customer funds"; and gave special treatment to Alameda, said Ray, adding that "the debtors do not have an accounting department and outsource this function."

He said the company did not have "an accurate list" of its own bank accounts, or even a complete record of the people who worked for FTX. He added that FTX used "an unsecured group email account" to manage the security keys for its digital assets.

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posted by hubie on Friday November 18, @02:39AM   Printer-friendly
from the time-to-fire-up-the-Rocinante dept.

"You'll get to know the difference when you either die or you pass through":

A team of physicists from Sofia University in Bulgaria say that wormholes, which are hypothetical tunnels linking one part of the universe to another, might be hiding in plain sight — in the form of black holes, New Scientist reports.

Black holes have long puzzled scientists, gobbling up matter and never letting it escape.

But where does all of this matter go? Physicists have long toyed with the idea that these black holes could be leading to "white holes," or wells that spew out streams of particles and radiation.

These two ends could together form a wormhole, or an Einstein-Rosen bridge to be specific, which some physicists believe could stretch any amount of time and space, a tantalizing theory that could rewrite the laws of spacetime as we understand them today.

Now, the researchers suggest that the "throat" of a wormhole could look very similar to previously discovered black holes, like the monster Sagittarius A* which is believed to be lurking at the center of our galaxy.

"Ten years ago, wormholes were completely in the area of science fiction," team lead Petya Nedkova at Sofia University told New Scientist. "Now, they are coming forward to the frontiers of science and people are actively searching."

[...] The only way to really tell for sure would be to scan these celestial oddities with an even higher-resolution telescope.

The other option, of course, would be to risk it all by flinging yourself into a black hole.

"If you were nearby, you would find out too late," Nedkova told the publication. "You'll get to know the difference when you either die or you pass through."

Also see: Wormholes Could Be Hiding in Plain Sight

Journal Reference:
Valentin Deliyski, Galin Gyulchev, Petya Nedkova, and Stoytcho Yazadjiev, Polarized image of equatorial emission in horizonless spacetimes: Traversable wormholes, Phys. Rev. D, 106, 2022. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.106.104024

Original Submission

posted by hubie on Thursday November 17, @11:56PM   Printer-friendly

Active in dozens of advanced hacks since 2009, Billbug is still going strong:

Nation-state hackers based in China recently infected a certificate authority and several government and defense agencies with a potent malware cocktail for burrowing inside a network and stealing sensitive information, researchers said on Tuesday.

The successful compromise of the unnamed certificate authority is potentially serious, because these entities are trusted by browsers and operating systems to certify the identities responsible for a particular server or app. In the event the hackers obtained control of the organization's infrastructure, they could use it to digitally sign their malware to make it more easily slip past endpoint protections. They might also be able to cryptographically impersonate trusted websites or intercept encrypted data.

While the researchers who discovered the breach found no evidence the certificate infrastructure had been compromised, they said that this campaign was only the latest by a group they call Billbug, which has a documented history of noteworthy hacks dating back to at least 2009.

"The ability of this actor to compromise multiple victims at once indicates that this threat group remains a skilled and well-resourced operator that is capable of carrying out sustained and wide-ranging campaigns," Symantec researchers wrote. "Billbug also appears to be undeterred by the possibility of having this activity attributed to it, with it reusing tools that have been linked to the group in the past."

[...] Tuesday's post includes a host of technical details people can use to determine if they've been targeted by Billbug. Symantec is the security arm of Broadcom Software.

Remember that you can always edit/manage the list of trusted Certificate Authorities on your own machines.

Original Submission

posted by hubie on Thursday November 17, @09:12PM   Printer-friendly

Conservation efforts and fishery management have allowed tuna and billfish to recover:

After decades of population declines, the future is looking brighter for several tuna and billfish species, such as southern bluefin tuna, black marlins and swordfish, thanks to years of successful fisheries management and conservation actions. But some sharks that live in these fishes' open water habitats are still in trouble, new research suggests.

These sharks, including oceanic whitetips and porbeagles, are often caught by accident within tuna and billfish fisheries. And a lack of dedicated management of these species has meant their chances of extinction continue to rise, researchers report in the Nov. 11 Science.

[...] The team found that the extinction risk for tunas and billfishes increased throughout the last half of the 20th century, with the trend reversing for tunas starting in the 1990s and billfishes in the 2010s. These shifts are tied to known reductions in fishing deaths for these species that occurred at the same time.

[...] But shark species are floundering in these very same waters where tuna and billfish are fished, where the sharks are often caught as bycatch.

[...] "While we are increasingly sustainably managing the commercially important, valuable target species of tunas and billfishes," says Juan-Jordá, "shark populations continue to decline, therefore, the risk of extinction has continued to increase."

Some solutions going forward, says Juan-Jordá, include catch limits for some species and establishing sustainability goals within tuna and billfish fisheries beyond just the targeted species, addressing the issue of sharks that are incidentally caught. And it's important to see if measures taken to reduce shark bycatch deaths are actually effective, she says.

"There is a clear need for significant improvement in shark-focused management, and organizations responsible for their management need to act quickly before it is too late," Simpfendorfer says.

Original Submission

posted by hubie on Thursday November 17, @06:27PM   Printer-friendly

Cryptocurrency has always offered a strange mix of temptations and challenges for anyone trying to steal it. As digital cash, held in multibillion-dollar sums on hackable, internet-connected networks, it presents a lucrative target. But once it's stolen, the blockchains that almost every cryptocurrency is built on make it possible to follow that money's every movement and, very often, to identify the thieves. So after a massive heist pulled nearly half a billion dollars worth of funds out of the already collapsing FTX cryptocurrency exchange yesterday, the world's crypto tracers are now closely tracking where that loot ends up—and looking for any clues that reveal the thief to be an FTX insider or just an opportunistic hacker.

On Friday, hours after the major cryptocurrency exchange FTX had filed for bankruptcy in the wake of its epic, 10-figure collapse, FTX's remaining funds were drained of more than $663 million worth of cryptocurrency, much of which appears to have been stolen. "FTX has been hacked," wrote an administrator in FTX's Telegram channel. "FTX apps are malware. Delete them." [...]

[...] "We're definitely watching the movements of these funds," says Chris Janczewski, the head of investigations at TRM Labs and a former special agent at the IRS's criminal investigations division. "This potential thief has hundreds of millions of dollars. But it's like they went into a bank, took as much cash as they could carry, and then the dye packs went off. They've got all this money, but now everyone knows it's connected to this bank robbery. What can you actually do with it?"

[...] But in the case of the high-profile FTX theft and the exchange's overall collapse, tracing the errant funds might help put to rest—or confirm—swirling suspicions that someone within FTX was responsible for the theft. The company's Bahamas-based CEO, Sam Bankman-Fried, who resigned Friday, lost virtually his entire $16 billion fortune in the collapse. According to an unconfirmed report from CoinTelegraph, he and two other FTX executives are "under supervision" in the Bahamas, preventing them from leaving the country. Reuters also reported late last week that Bankman-Fried possessed a "back door" that was built into FTX's compliance system, allowing him to withdraw funds without alerting others at the company.

[...] As the questions mount over whether—or to what degree—FTX's own management might be responsible for the theft, the case has begun to resemble, more than any recent crypto heist, a very old one: the theft of a half billion dollars worth of bitcoins, discovered in 2014, from Mt. Gox, the first cryptocurrency exchange. In that case, blockchain analysis carried out by cryptocurrency tracing firm Chainalysis, along with law enforcement, helped to pin the theft on external hackers rather than Mt. Gox's own staff. Eventually, Alexander Vinnik, a Russian man, was arrested in Greece in 2017 and later convicted of laundering the stolen Mt. Gox funds, exonerating Mt. Gox's embattled executives.

Whether history will repeat itself, and cryptocurrency tracing will prove the innocence of FTX's staff, remains far from clear. But as more eyes than ever scour the cryptocurrency economy's blockchains, it's a surer bet that the whodunit behind the FTX theft will, sooner or later, produce an answer.

Original Submission

posted by janrinok on Thursday November 17, @03:38PM   Printer-friendly

Germany's antitrust watchdog has moved to widen an existing investigation of Amazon's business in the market in light of special abuse powers it confirmed are applicable to the ecommerce giant's business in the country this summer.

The Federal Cartel Office (FCO) said yesterday it is extending two ongoing "abuse control proceedings" against Amazon to include the application of "the new instrument for more effective oversight over large digital companies" (aka, Section 19a of the GWB; aka it's rebooted competition law) — which is a reference to a 2021 reform of German competition law that targets digital giants found to have so-called "paramount significance for competition across markets" with a proactive antitrust regime that outlaws practices such as self-preferencing, denying interoperability and exclusively bundling their own services to the detriment of rival offerings, among other ex ante prohibitions listed in Section 19b of the law.

The German law is similar to the pan-EU Digital Markets Act (DMA) which was recently adopted by the bloc — and will come into force next year — so the FCO is ahead of the curve here and its application of special abuse controls may offer a little taster of the extended scrutiny that's coming down the pipe across the continent for Big Tech.

The FCO has two open investigations of Amazon that are being extended to include scrutiny of whether they comply with the rebooted competition regime — one examining price control mechanisms it says are used by Amazon to algorithmically control price setting by third-party sellers on its marketplace; and another proceeding focused on what it dubs "brandgating", aka "possible disadvantages" for marketplace sellers as a result of various instruments applied by Amazon, such as agreements with (brand) manufacturers on whether individual sellers can or cannot sell (brand) products on the Amazon marketplace.

[...] A Europe Union competition investigation of the ecommerce giant's use of third party seller data has been grinding on for years — and an attempt by Amazon to settle the probe this summer, by offering a set of commitments, was swiftly denounced by dozens of civil society and digital rights groups as weak sauce.

A few days later Commission EVP and competition chief Margrethe Vestager warned the company its offer wasn't good enough.

The EU is still considering industry feedback on Amazon's commitments so it remains to be seen where that pan-EU antitrust procedure will land.

Original Submission

posted by janrinok on Thursday November 17, @12:55PM   Printer-friendly

From combat clouds to drone swarm attacks, this year's Zhuhai air show demonstrated China's rapid advancements in uncrewed military technologies under President Xi Jinping.

China will "speed up the development of unmanned, intelligent combat capabilities," Xi had pledged in his written report to the Communist Party congress in October, where he began a rare third term at the party's helm.

True to this goal, the China International Aviation and Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai, which ended Sunday, featured an extensive display of cutting-edge weaponry. But it also highlighted some ways that China is falling short, suggesting that it still may take years to build a military that rivals America's in quality as well as quantity.

Defense contractors and civilian companies alike brought to the show a bevy of uncrewed vehicles, from aircraft to tanks, in a wide range of sizes. But unlike last year, they focused not only on the drones' individual capabilities, but also their connectivity to crewed assets and remote command centers.

A concept similar to the "combat cloud" under development in the U.S. was also presented. China appears to be working on better precision-guided weapons, information transfers and sensor capabilities, integrating artificial intelligence into weapons systems to enhance military operations.

China North Industries Group (Norinco) displayed a combat system aimed at minimizing human casualties through the use of interconnected drones, uncrewed tanks, loitering munitions and four-legged transporters. [...]

Original Submission

posted by janrinok on Thursday November 17, @10:10AM   Printer-friendly

The tiny animated duck is a replica of a toy created by the company's founders:

On average, Lego produces about 20 billion plastic bricks and building elements every year, and most come from injection molding machines that are so precise that just 18 of every million parts produced are rejected. It's the secret to Lego's enduring appeal and quality standards, but the approach also has its limits, which is why the company is starting to experiment with other manufacturing techniques.

The process is fast, taking just 10 seconds to create a new Lego element, which allows Lego to churn them out by the millions. But creating those highly-accurate molds is a very expensive and time-consuming process, and before commissioning a new minifig or type of piece, Lego needs to know it will sell enough sets to justify the costs of developing the mold for it. It's why new Lego building elements are few and far between and often a big deal, but it doesn't necessarily have to be that way.

[...] Availability of the 3D printed element will be limited, and visitors wanting to purchase the unique souvenir will need to sign up in advance for the chance to spend 89 DKK—or about US $12—on one. On top of that, those who purchase the duck will be asked to complete a survey that asks questions about their experience with it, and how it compares to Lego elements manufactured using more traditional techniques.

Admittedly, I was more of an Erector Set kinda kid back in the day, but that was way before Lego had all their specialized kits. Originally spotted on The Eponymous Pickle.

Original Submission

posted by janrinok on Thursday November 17, @07:24AM   Printer-friendly

In some ways, C and C++ run the world. You'd never know it from all the hype about other programming languages, such as Python and Go, but the vast majority of high-performance mass-market desktop applications and operating systems are written in C++, and the vast majority of embedded applications are written in C. We're not talking about smartphone apps or web applications: these have special languages, such as Java and Kotlin for Android and Objective-C and Swift for iOS. They only use C/C++ for inner loops that have a crying need for speed, and for libraries shared across operating systems.

C and C++ have dominated systems programming for so long, it's difficult to imagine them being displaced. Yet many experts are saying it is time for them to go, and for programmers to embrace better alternatives. Microsoft Azure CTO Mark Russinovich recently made waves when he suggested that C and C++ developers should move to Rust instead. "The industry should declare those languages as deprecated," Russinovich tweeted.

Many developers are exploring Rust as a production-ready alternative to C/C++, and there are other options on the horizon. In this article, we'll consider the merits and readiness of the three most cited C/C++ language alternatives: Rust, Carbon, and cppfront. First, let's take a look back through the history and some of the pain points of C/C++.

[...] The Rust-lang homepage declares three major reasons to choose Rust: performance, reliability, and productivity. Rust was designed to be fast, safe, and easy to use, with the overarching goal of empowering everyone to build reliable and efficient software.

As far as performance goes, Rust is both fast and memory-efficient: with no runtime or garbage collector, it can power performance-critical services, run on embedded devices, and easily integrate with other languages. On the reliability side, Rust's rich type system and ownership model guarantee memory safety and thread safety—which developers can use to eliminate many classes of bugs at compile-time. For productivity, Rust boasts great documentation, a friendly compiler with useful error messages, and top-notch tooling—an integrated package manager and build tool, smart multi-editor support with auto-completion and type inspections, an auto-formatter, and more.

[...] The stated goals of the Carbon language project are: performance-critical software; software and language evolution; code that is easy to read, understand, and write; practical safety and testing mechanisms; fast and scalable development; modern OS platforms, hardware architectures, and environments; and interoperability with and migration from existing C++ code.

[...] Herb Sutter has served for a decade as chair of the ISO C++ standards committee. He is a software architect at Microsoft, where he's led the language extensions design of C++/CLI, C++/CX, C++ AMP, and other technologies. With Cpp2 and cppfront, Sutter says his "goal is to explore whether there's a way we can evolve C++ itself to become 10 times simpler, safer, and more toolable." He explains:

If we had an alternate C++ syntax, it would give us a "bubble of new code that doesn't exist today" where we could make arbitrary improvements (e.g., change defaults, remove unsafe parts, make the language context-free and order-independent, and generally apply 30 years' worth of learnings), free of backward source compatibility constraints.

[...] Rust, Carbon, and Cppfront all show promise as C++ alternatives. For Carbon, we're probably looking at a five-year development cycle until it's released for production. Cppfront might be available for production sooner, and Rust is already there.

All three languages are (or will be) interoperable with C++ at a binary level. That implies that all three languages could allow you to make gradual improvements to existing C++ programs by adding new non-C++ modules.

Original Submission